What is a Project? -Planned set of interrelated tasks to be executed over a fixed period within certain cost and other limitations to achieve specific goal(s)
•    Definite start and finish
•    Identifiable goal
A successful project is one which was started and completed on time, within the budget, of quality and satisfies the end user


•    PROJECT CYCLE


The stages in a project cycle are: -
1.    Project idea
2.    Situation anaylysis
3.    Planning
4.    Financing
5.    Implementation
6.    Evaluation


•    PROJECT IDEA


•    Conceptualization to solve a felt need
- Who initiates the project idea – beneficiaries, stakeholders?
•    In line with the beneficiaries’ vision
•    Is it a priority for the beneficiaries?


Corruption in Project Idea


•    Project idea is conceived elsewhere and by others
•    Locals i.e. would be beneficiaries are not involved – before, during or after conception
•    SITUATION ANAYLYSIS
•    Studies undertaken to determine whether the project is feasible
•    Beneficiaries consulted on project location/site
•    Environmental impact assessment


•    SITUATION ANAYLYSIS


Corruption in Situation Analysis


•    Feasibility studies not undertaken
•    Beneficiaries not made aware or consulted on the project location/site
•    Environmental impact assessment study not undertaken Click the File tab, then click Save & Send.
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•    PLANNING


•    Election of Project Management Committee
•    Project specifications, organization
•    Project drawings and approvals, bills of quantities
•    Project phasing and implementation schedule
•    Development of monitoring and evaluation tools
•    Competitive tendering/procurement process of goods and services  

•    Corruption in Project Planning
•    No Project Management Committee
•    Project variations (specifications), deviations, delays
•    No implementation schedule
•    Falsification of records  
•    Absence of storage facilities and store records
•    FINANCING
•    Project financing – how will it be financed?
•    Source(s) of funding
•    Where are the funds kept?
•    Who is responsible for keeping the money?


Corruption in Project Financing
•    No information on project cost, amount provided, source(s), where the money is kept, by who,


 IMPLEMENTATION
•    Commencement of the project
•    Project accountability board
•    Supervision by the PMC
•    Coordination of human resource – unskilled labour sourced locally
•    Procurement and utilization of materials
•    Application of specifications
•    Site meetings/briefings for beneficiaries held

 Corruption in Project Implementation
•    Ghost projects/white ‘elephants’
•    No supervision by PMC or physical verification
•    No project accountability board, progress reports
•    Locals not considered for unskilled jobs, ghost workers, over-recruitment, political patronage
•    Hap haphazard procurement and utilization of materials, outright theft of materials (then sold to who?)
•    Specifications not applied or unjustifiably varied


 IMPLEMENTATION
•    No site meetings/briefings for beneficiaries are not held
•    Falsification of records to support payments
•    Embezzlement  of funds
•    Duplication of payments
•    No monitoring of the progress
•    EvaluatIon
•    Provides feedback on the project
•    Compares outcome with the project targets
•    Draws lessons learnt to inform future or ongoing projects
•    Are the beneficiaries utilizing the project, if not, why?; what needs to be rectified?


•    EVALUATION
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•    A project that is affected by corruption in one or more stages of the project cycle is rarely evaluated.
•    Why?
•    RUNNING THEME
•    Corruption thrives most where public participation is least
•    Corruption can attack a project at any stage in the project
•    SOCIAL AUDIT
•    Steps taken to ensure that the work done on public projects actually benefits the people whom it is intended to benefit
•    Understanding, measuring, reporting, and improving the efficiency and effectiveness in governance

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